Although the share of global population affected by hunger significantly reduced from 60% to 15% during the past five decades, about 795 million people are still chronically undernourished. The majority of those affected are mostly from developing countries – notably in sub-Saharan Africa. This chapter provides a detailed description of a research for development project that worked to improve the quality of diets given to children from rural households within banana-based farming and food systems in East Africa. Banana is an important livelihood and food security crop for millions in Uganda. Preliminary surveys indicate that some banana cultivars, currently less commonly grown and consumed in East Africa, could substantially contribute to vitamin A intake of children 6–59 months. Food consumption studies also indicate that bananas are often prepared or consumed along with small amounts of fresh beans, green leafy vegetables, ground nut paste or meat.