Development of Mapping Populations
Mapping populations consist of individuals of one species, or in some cases they derive from crosses among related species where the parents differ in the traits to be studied. These genetic tools are used to identify genetic factors or loci that influence phenotypic traits and determine the recombination distance between loci. The first step in producing a mapping population is selecting two genetically divergent parents, which show clear genetic differences for one or more traits of interest. In different organisms of the same species, the genes, represented by alternate allelic forms, are arranged in a fixed linear order on the chromosomes. Linkage values among genetic factors are estimated based on recombination events between alleles of different loci, and linkage relationships along all chromosomes provide a genetic map of the organism. The type of mapping population to be used depends on the reproductive mode of the plant to be analyzed. In this chapter we are going to discuss in detailed about the mapping population and their types.