ESD and EOS: Failure Mechanisms and Reliability
The solution of a problem can often be clarified by ordering it into rational classifications or categories. This is particularly applicable to the understanding and analysis of the entire scope of electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electrical overstress (EOS) failures. When analyzing a failure that is presumably an ESD or an EOS failure, deciphering the failure mechanism is often the first step in addressing the problem. This chapter focuses on a systematic presentation of the failure mechanisms and related reliability issues associated with ESD and EOS events. In the most basic definition, EOS is simply an electrical stress that is applied to a device beyond that for which it has been designed. This may or may not be transient or dynamic in nature. By this definition, EOS will result in damage of the device. The chapter also discusses some implications of failures resulting from other electrical stresses.