chapter  13
44 Pages

Future Trends in Nanophotonics: Medical Diagnostics and Treatment, Nanodevices, and Photovoltaic Cells

WithChaya Narayan, Aditi Deshpande, Suman Shrestha, Tannaz Farrahi, Jennifer Syms, Chris Mela, Yinan Li, Anandi Mahadevan, Lin Zhang, Ryan Koglin, George C. Giakos

The interaction of light with matter integrates major technologies such as photonics, nanotechnology, optical electronics, microuidics, and electrochemistry, leading to the shaping of new research frontiers such as nanodiagnostics, polymer nanophotonics, space optics, biophotonics, and biomolecular nanophotonics [1-48]. Nanoscale systems and nanostructured materials cover a wide spectrum of materials from inorganic and organic amorphous or crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) over nanocolloids suspensions up to nanostructured carbon compounds such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, such as

• Colloidal and epitaxial NPs • Colloidal quantum dots • Quantum dots, nanocrystals, and metamaterials • Biomedical markers • Metallic nanorods and nanoshells • Carbon nanotubes • Nanoarrays • Nanowires • Nano electromechanical systems (NEMS) and bio nano electromechanical sys-

tems (BIONEMS) devices

The search for efcient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information, at the molecular level, is an important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high-resolution, high-selectivity nanoimaging techniques, making use of quantum dots, NPs, biomarkers, nanostructures, probes encapsulated by biologically localized embedding (PEBBLE) nanosensors, imaging microarray chips, and nanoclinics for optical diagnostics and targeted therapy, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efcient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specicity. Emphasis is on the design of the following:

• New in vivo imaging and therapeutic techniques • Nanoarray technology for DNA and protein • Upconverting nanophores for photodynamic treatment • Lab-on-a-chip systems for biomedical and scientic in situ detection • Molecular motors that move uids in chip-sized laboratories • Nanoinstrumentation imagery

NP technologies may lead to potential commercial applications that would revolutionize the environmental and energy technology. Future directions include the following:

• LEDs • Solar cells

• Molecular motors that move uids in chip-sized laboratories (lab-on-a-chip) • Raman, LIBS, and LIDARs

Special emphasis will be paid on future directions and challenges regarding the discovery and development of new nanomaterials, metamaterials, and photonic nanocrystals for

• Space-based electronic systems such as communication satellites and interplanetary space probes (semiconductors and optoelectronics for data communication)

• Space optical instrumentation and systems for missile defense and air force applications

• Nanoelectronics (data processing and communication systems with minimized energy consumption, highly integrated nanodevices for miniaturized space systems, etc.)

• Imaging sensors and focal planar arrays (FPAs)

Future trends and applications of nanotechnology have emphasis on

• Photonic and nanophotonic detectors. • Remote sensing systems and standoff detection with potential applications in the

area of homeland security are anticipated.