Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity
Electrical resistivity is a key physical property of all materials. It is often necessary to accurately measure the resistivity of a given material. The electrical resistivity of different materials at room temperature can vary by over 20 orders of magnitude. No single technique or instrument can measure resistivities over this wide range. This chapter describes a number of different experimental techniques and instruments for measuring resistivities. The emphasis is on explaining how to make practical measurements and avoid common experimental errors. More theoretical and detailed discussions can be found in the sources listed at the end of this chapter.