chapter  7

Needle-Type Environmental Sensors

WithWoo Hyoung Lee, Jin-Hwan Lee, Woo-Hyuck Choi, Ian Papautsky, Paul L. Bishop

The development of environmental microsensor techniques is a revolutionary advancement in the measurement of both absolute levels and changes in chemical species in engineered and natural aquatic systems. This advancement has utilized microscopic monitoring to contribute a greater understanding of biological mechanisms in many environmental processes for decades. Currently, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microfabrication technology, which is intimately connected to a microelectronic circuit for amplifying, processing, and transmitting microelectrode (ME) signals, is being successfully applied to the development of multianalyte sensor systems for in situ monitoring.