The advance of space exploration has been fraught with inherent risk throughout its history. Health effects from space radiation for off-world astronauts remain one such risk that has historically received little attention but in fact may be the most constraining factor for long-duration missions that depart from the relative safety of the Earth’s magnetosphere. With interplanetary and lunar-based missions rapidly approaching on the horizon, it is now critically important to understand the impacts of the space radiation environment and to develop instrumentation capable of properly expressing that hazard. A summary is provided here for the status of those instruments and their recent developments and to briefly introduce the basis for space radiation hazards. Readers are encouraged to explore the cited literature for further details.