Since carbon allotropes take on a diversity of structures and properties, carbon-based materials have attracted much interest in the areas of basic science and practical materials development. Both of them can be modified internally and externally by incorporating other kinds of atoms and molecules, yielding a variety of unusually structured and functional carbon derivatives. Material processes, resultant derivatives, and their properties relating to nano- and molecular electronics are taken up, with an emphasis on inner nanospace control of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes. Single-walled carbon nanotubes, which consist of only one graphen layer, are especially expected to be a primal candidate for developing a nanoelectronics application due to their scaling advantage and unprecedented electrical characteristics. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is one of the well-known methods of forming nanotubes, and has outstanding benefits for the vertical growth of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes.