Migration, ageing and social inclusion
In this chapter I consider the experience of migrants growing older in a ‘new’, host community focusing on the roles of migration trajectories, social networks and culture in shaping the experience of social inclusion among older migrants. I draw on data obtained from life history interviews with 66 older Turkish migrants, aged 65 years or more collected in 2012–2013 and 30 interviews with community workers and care workers supporting Turkish older people. The analysis is based on Nancy Fraser’s trilogy of interrelated factors of social justice: resources, recognition and representation. Here, I focus on social networks as a key resource in migrants’ life course. For recognition, I discuss the cultural visibility and social status of this particular group of migrants and how these interact with wider recognition of ‘migrants’ and ‘older people’ as integrated groups within the wider society. In relation to representation, I include participation within and outside the ‘community’ and draw attention to the vexed impact of ‘strong social networks’ and solidarity in creating support as well as potential of social inclusion. The findings show that for Turkish older migrants, social networks were key resource that provided them with significant safety nets at crucial times in their lives. However, the same ‘resource’ created unintentional isolating bubbles from the wider society for prolonged periods of time, which had negative implications on the way they felt they are recognised and on how they actively sought representation.