This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book focuses on NATO's response to Russia, and the broader implications for Western security policy. If Russia chooses to not engage in new military activities close to NATO's borders, the internal differences in NATO may arise. Many allies may be reluctant to increase or even sustain the current eastward deterrence, as they consider crisis management in the Mediterranean to be more pressing. The pressures from NATO's southern flank are more likely to increase than decrease in the years to come - in the form of war, refugees, migrants and terrorism. The increased Russian engagement in the Middle East also fuels these concerns, but do not necessarily translate to strong commitments to deterrence in the east. Efforts at projecting stability out of area may therefore attract more attention in the next summits.