NATO nuclear adaptation at the Warsaw Summit
After the end of the Cold War, NATO dramatically lessened its reliance on nuclear weapons, reducing their numbers and types. Since early 2014, however, the demand for NATO nuclear deterrence has renewed. Concerns about Russia's irresponsible rhetoric, its exercises, evolving nuclear doctrine, and force-posture modernization have compelled NATO to return to thinking in terms of nuclear deterrence. The July 2016 Warsaw Summit concluded the first stage of NATO's new nuclear adaptation, but the enhancement of stability in the Euro-Atlantic area will require further efforts. Russia's actions have led to the conclusion that nuclear weapons are an inseparable part of its approach to a conflict. The concept involves the integrated use of a whole spectrum of non-military and military tools, including nuclear ones, not only for defence of own territory but also to support aggressive actions beyond Russia's borders. There is also a need for a clear and consistent communications strategy about Russia's nuclear-related behavior.