Key mode-specific issues in funding and financing of transport infrastructure
This chapter presents a review of the business models underpinning a number of public and public-private partnership (PPP) transport projects included in the BENEFIT case study set. It also explores an assessment of their performance with respect to a number of outcomes, namely cost and time to construction completion, actual versus forecast traffic, actual versus forecast revenues as well as the achievement of other transport goals. Bridge and tunnel projects are, by nature, technically demanding, but also carry the potential of demonstrating performance enhancing characteristics. Bridges and tunnels are physical network integration links. They integrate previously separate parts of the transport network, rendering them inherently exclusive and monopolistic in nature as they facilitate the crossing of natural barriers. Investments in transport infrastructure projects are important for local development, improving the attractiveness of real estate in the area, or reducing congestion, among other transport-related benefits.