This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores the tension between authenticity and fiction in the representation of Mediterranean captivity by focusing on Sweden in particular. It addresses instances in which former captives and literary authors processed slavery experiences through artistic productions in various forms and media. The book deals with authentic captivity narratives and their idiosyncratic publishing and translation histories. It focuses on the most widely read captivity narrative proper in the early modern period. The book traces the influences of Barbary captivity on fiction and vice versa by looking at connections between the Barbary narratives and the popular genre of the Robinsonade. It also focuses on the multifaceted exchanges between Mediterranean captivity experiences and their fictional representations. What becomes clear in the individual case studies in this collection is that this exchange is never mono-directional.