This introductory chapter presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of the book. The book critically describes the use of various types of sport to increase activity and to promote health aspects related to the sporting activity. Richard Bailey provides a chapter to encapsulate theme one: Sport participation and health: the evidence. In his chapter, Richard is asking whether sport can play a role as part of the physical activity agenda. It focuses on the largest population of sports players, children and young people, and their most populous group, namely recreational players. The book extends upon the idea of a settings-based approach to health. Here Daniel Parnell, Kathryn Curran and Matthew Philpott offer a focused lens on the role of professional sports stadia and in amateur sport settings for health promotion. Healthy Stadia is a social enterprise based in the United Kingdom with over 300 members from a cross-section of European countries.