Politeness Goes to the Scaffold
The chapter explores address strategies used in Anglophone productions set in the Elizabethan era and their Italian and Polish translations. On the basis of selected films and television series—i.e. The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (1939), The Virgin Queen (1955), Elizabeth R (1971), Elizabeth (1998), Elizabeth (2005), Elizabeth: The Golden Age (2007)—it describes interpersonal pragmatics at the filmic court, focusing specifically on nominal forms of address, i.e. names, ranks and titles incorporated into the dialogue to reveal the identity of the interlocutors and signal their social status and mutual relationship. Highly conventionalised in the original productions, modelled on historical norms in the Tudor period, they pose a considerable difficulty in translation into languages with incompatible address systems, shaped by markedly dissimilar cultural and historical traditions. The chapter explains the differences between Polish and Italian strategies of translating historical forms of address and considers potential discrepancies between the versions, necessitated by particular audiovisual translation modes.