How Anthropogenic Activities Affect the Establishment and Spread of Non-Indigenous Species Post-Arrival
This chapter reviews the major anthropogenic activities that affect the success of non-indigenous species (NIS) post-arrival. It aims to prioritize the factors in terms of the ecological and evolutionary importance, and present potential management actions to reduce NIS success post-arrival. The chapter explores the anthropogenic factors that influence the successful establishment and spread of introduced species in the marine environment, post-arrival. It provides an overview of the major anthropogenic influences to marine environments and describes how they may affect NIS. The chapter highlights areas in which there is potential for effective management of NIS post-arrival. The majority of marine NIS is transported in ballast water or as hull-fouling organisms and both of the transport mechanisms are highly contaminated with metals. Once established, the spread of marine NIS is often facilitated through the presence of extensive transport networks associated with coastal shipping, boating and aquaculture.