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n, yoseba persisted in

camps for forced-draft Korean laborers known as "octopus rooms" because, like the octopus traps used by Japanese fishennen, there was no getting out once one had gotten The camps were presided over by criminal gangs which used violence to coerce labor on military projects and to prevent the escape of the Korean inmates. The Kajima Gang, forerunner of today's giant Kajima Con-

While ordinary peasants were sent to the Ishikawajima labor camp, a separate yoseba was set up in 1848 for classes of people who had traditionally been kept separate from the rest of society. It was this yoseba which existed on the site of the present-day Sanya, amidst a cluster of communities of eta (those working the polluting leather trades) and hinin (an even lower caste of "non-humans") and the Y oshiwara pleasure quarters. Forced labor for hinin consisted of leading prisoners to the famous Kozukahara execution site, carrying out punishments and executions, and disposing of the dead bodies.