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of Kayoko's

second son at home for a year and seven months before he was put in the nursery. Kayoko took her sons to the nursery school on the way to work in the morning as her workplace was relatively close to her house, but she had to depend on her mother to pick them up in the afternoon before the nursery school closed at five. The availability of such help was crucial to the woman concerned,

In relying on a close relative, these women were unwittingly perpetuating traditional patterns of family life. In the traditional family household the younger couple were both engaged in productive activities, while the older woman looked after small children. The present situation differs in that the young wife controls the household fmances and family affairs. This arrangement, however, seems to reinforce the lineal relationship rather than the conjugal relationship as the two women work together in the domestic arena, exchanging information on children and household matters. It also appears to discourage the husband's participation in domestic activities. A few informants explicitly said that their husbands did not like to do domestic chores because of the presence of either the husband's own mother or his mother-in-law in the household.