if it what-for
Although familism had been useful in the past and needed rehabilitation if it was to be so again in the future, that was not the immediate concern of business. Familism could come later (as indeed it did during the late 1950s along with higher wages and Fordism). Once business had the upper hand, it could selectively dole out responsibility for production, as opposed to control over production, through various top-down management schemes promoting "democratic" and familistic participation in meeting production goals set by management alone. The real question from the start was always participation for what-for achieving efficiencies for management's benefit or for improving the workers' lot through democratizing the workplace and recognizing workers' rights.