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of the unionized, highly trained and well-

paid male lifetime employees as a proportion of the work force. Their place was taken by non-union low-paid workers of either sex, such as female part-time production workers, day-laborers controlled by female office-temporaries supplied by private employment agencies. In addition, more and more tasks were being subcontracted out to smaller dependent compa-
Withyakuza labor contractors, and

Although the return to moderate rates of growth in the 1980s produced full employment and an expansion of the consumer market, the benefits were ever more unevenly spread. The workplace restructuring begun in the late 1970s was far reaching and initiated the decline paid male lifetime employees as a proportion of the work force. Their place was taken by non-union low-paid workers of either sex, such as female part-time production workers, day-laborers controlled by yakuza labor contractors, and female office-temporaries supplied by private employment agencies. In addition, more and more tasks were being subcontracted out to smaller dependent companies employing non-unionized, low-paid male and female workers without job security. Research on the differences between the union leadership at Toyota and Nissan illustrates how management saw even the limited amount of power labor bosses like the head of the Nissan union had as a major impediment to competing with Toyota. Thus Nissan's new president set himself the task in the early 1980s to smash any vestiges of union power on the shop floor and create a company union--with complete success.42