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of labor

unions or labor-capital cooperation in the form of the enterprise-level council blinded the Party to the meaning of the quickening of the workers' movement in the spring of 1946. Just when the production-control struggles were moving in a militantly anti-capitalist direction and beginning to reach out and forge alliances with the city's poor and needy farmers, the JCP fell behind the popular move-

The outcome of the above shifts in policy, understandably, was eventually to

be a convergence in the direction of accepting and institutionalizing a denatured fonn of production control within a reconstructed capitalist order through extending to legally recognized organizations of labor certain narrow rights to participate in management, but with no rights of control over management.67 It could hardly have been otherwise, given the mutual acceptance by the JCP and the progressive elite of the necessity for an immediate capitalist reconstruction of Japan.