The Sack of Palermo resulted in the decay of the ancient city, which had also suffered significant bombing during the Second World War. This chapter explores the global and local factors underpinning the processes that made the Sack possible. It shows how the interaction between local and global elements developed the network of political and economic alliances that led to the victory of the Sackers and to the marginalisation of the Opponents. Moreover, the social bloc who carried out the Sack of Palermo could enjoy the advantages of the international political context, wherein all those legal and illegal actors and practices which used the shield of anti-Communism, were tolerated and appreciated. The anti-Communist role the Mafia played alongside conservative forces, as well as its connection with its overseas "friends", were to secure Cosa Nostra not only a prominent role in the legal domain, but also a pivotal position in international drug trafficking since 1957.