Porous Scaffolds Using Dual Electrospinning for in situ Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering
In situ cardiovascular tissue engineering is emerging as a promising approach for replacing diseased or damaged components of the cardiovascular system by the use of biodegradable synthetic grafts. Functional porous scaffolds are implanted to create in vivo complex tissues that are functionally similar to their native counterparts. A biodegradable starter matrix permits cell infiltration and tissue formation at the site of implantation, while maintaining tissue mechanical and biological function. This chapter elaborates on the fabrication of porous scaffolds via the electrospinning technique, including advantages, as well as limitations of various approaches, like single-nozzle, dual-nozzle, and coaxial-nozzle electrospinning. 442The added value of dual-nozzle electrospinning technique is highlighted, where scaffold porosity is enhanced by selectively removing one of the polymers while the other polymer maintains mechanical stability. Further, optimization techniques for modifying the porosity of electrospun scaffolds are described along with their influence on the graft’s mechanical properties and biodegradation rate.