chapter  20
14 Pages

3D Printing of Tissue/Organ Analogues for Regenerative Medicine

WithXiaohong Wang

Three-dimensional printing, also named as rapid prototyping (RP), additive manufacturing (AM), or solid freeform fabrication (SFF), consists of a series of novel platforms that can simultaneously assemble one or more biomaterials from digital models in a precisely controlled layer-by-layer fashion. Complex architectural factors, such as internal pore size, geometry, interconnectivity, branching, and orientation, can be integrated into a construct in a scale-up and reproduceable manner. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7–8 These technologies have opened new research areas in the tissue/organ regenerative medicine field. More 568and more researchers have used advanced 3D printing technologies to fabricate tissue/organ analogues close in architectures and material compositions to biological tissues and organs. 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13–14 Studies on 3D printing techniques for substitutes of bone, skin, pancreas, and vascularized adipose tissues have been reported. 15 , 16–17 Especially, the combination of biomaterials and RP techniques is current state-of-the-art for tissue and organ manufacturing. 18 A lot of pioneer work has done by the author’s own group at the Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, China, with various biocompatible natural/synthetic biomaterials and 3D printing techniques (Fig. 20.1). 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34–35 This review mainly concentrated on the 3D printing of tissue/organ analogues for regenerative medicine. Several unique, intelligent 3D printing devices and their functional cell-laden products developed in the Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, China: (A) The first generation of the 3D cell printer with its hepatocyte and adipose-derived stem cell containing 3D constructs developed in Tsinghua University by Prof. X. H. Wang’ group<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_24"> <sup>24</sup> </xref> <sup>,</sup> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_25"> <sup>25</sup> </xref> <sup>,</sup> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_31"> <sup>31</sup> </xref> <sup>,</sup> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_32"> <sup>32</sup> </xref> <sup>,</sup> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_33"> <sup>33</sup> </xref> <sup>,</sup> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_34 ref20_35"> <sup>34–35</sup> </xref> (B) the second generation of the 3D cell printer with two different cell types in the gelatin-based hydrogels developed in Tsinghua University by Prof. X. H. Wang’ group;<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_27"> <sup>27</sup> </xref> <sup>,</sup> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_28"> <sup>28</sup> </xref> and (C) the double-nozzle low-temperature 3D organ printer with a hybrid hierarchical polyurethane and cell/hydrogel construct developed in Tsinghua University by Prof. X. H. Wang’ group.<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_19"> <sup>19</sup> </xref> <sup>,</sup> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_21"> <sup>21</sup> </xref> <sup>,</sup> <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref20_23"> <sup>23</sup> </xref>