Bladder Tissue Engineering
Tissue engineering of the bladder has a longstanding history. This is (partly) due to the medical need to replace bladder tissue after cystectomy for bladder cancer but also due to the need to augment bladders with small capacity and the need to repair bladder exstrophy, a birth defect in which the bladder grows outside the abdominal wall. Current state-of-the-art technologies are restricted to the use of autologous tissues to create a neobladder and primary closure. These approaches come at the expense of several complications such as metabolic disorders, bladder perforation, stone formation, infections, hematuria-dysuria syndrome, and potential development of cancer due to metaplasia. Obviously this affects the quality of life of patients. Here we will discuss the function and the composition of native bladder tissue and bladder tissue engineering, material design and techniques for bladder tissue engineering, and the role of 988stem cells for tissue engineering; review animal studies and clinical trials; and discuss future possibilities.