Recent Developments in Materials Innovation for Bone Tissue Regeneration
The skeletal system of our body displays some unique features not observed in other organs or tissues. Bone is composed of primarily inorganic nanocrystals bound by protein along with its cellular and systemic constituents. It has ability to constantly remodel and regenerate itself throughout the lifespan of a person. The reconstruction of new bone structure by osteoblastic cells and resorption of the same by osteoclastic cells drive this remodeling and constantly renewing the bone architecture in terms of constituent materials. This remodeling phenomenon and the vast presence of inorganic materials in bone have led to a unique way 112of undertaking clinical measures for healing damages incurred into it. A well-defined hierarchical organization is found in the internal architecture of bone. Like its exceptional internal organization, the clinical measures of treatments are also exceptional. Bone can regenerate itself after damage is incurred if the damage site is not too big. However, beyond the critical-size bone defect, bone healing is difficult and external intervention is needed. Bone healing for a critical-size bone defect has been approached with implant materials that gradually integrate with the body while healing is occurring. This has brought a unique prospect for a multidisciplinary approach for materials scientists, biological scientists, and clinicians for the realization of a proper remedy.