An Overview of Electrochemical Processes for Purification of Water Contaminated by Agricultural Activities
The role of electrochemistry to environmental applications is expanding due to the characteristics of electrochemical processes, namely, versatility, energy efficiency, environmental compatibility, cost effectiveness. The growth of electrocatalysts and electrochemical engineering has made a total revolution in the electrode and cell design technologies that are particularly important for water and effluent treatment. Electrochemical technologies, for the removal of contaminants due to agricultural activities, can be broadly divided two categories, namely, physical and chemical involving direct reaction at the electrode or an indirect reaction with a reagent generated electrolytically. Water purification methods involve physicochemical separation of contaminants or biological treatment. The extent of water contamination is so much and so varied that organic, inorganic, and biological impurities are present in the water due to natural as well as induced reasons. In most countries, water has been polluted by fertilizers and pesticides used during agricultural activities.