Managing Groundwater Resources in a Complex Environment: Challenges and Opportunities
Groundwater has become increasingly important in meeting water needs of industries and agriculture in developing countries. In the same breath, a lot of knowledge has been developed on how to manage groundwater with a view to sustaining those economic activities. Optimal management of groundwater resources can be done either deterministically or stochastically. The chapter addresses challenges, which translates into opportunities and through an optimization procedure that considers groundwater aquifer hydraulic conductivity as uncertain and develops a management strategy within a multiobjective framework. Increasing world population coupled with deterioration of surface water quality due to pollution has resulted in more attention being focused on groundwater storage systems. However, overexploitation of this reserve has adverse impacts, for example, lowered water table and saltwater intrusion. Some methods that address the issue of data uncertainty in groundwater management include postoptimality analysis, chance-constrained programming, and stochastic optimization with recourse method.