◾ Radiopharmaceuticals for Intraoperative Imaging
Most intraoperative imaging methods have involved localisation of lymph nodes (Bricou et al. 2013, Vidal-Sicart et al. 2014). Nuclear imaging of the lymphatic system and lymph nodes has traditionally been performed with radiolabelled particles or relatively large molecules which are administered as an interstitial depot and then migrate via lymphatic channels and are retained to a greater or lesser extent in lymph nodes (Uren et al. 1993). In general, only a small proportion of the radioactivity leaves the injection depot, which can create problems when imaging lymph nodes adjacent to the depot.