Literature is replete with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of brain function showing useful correlates to behavioral outcome in many central nervous system (CNS) disease states. This chapter describes a number of studies that show the sensitivity of rsfMRI to altered brain function after injury as well as the potential for following plastic changes within the brain. This shows a way of improving our understanding of how current rehabilitation methods may be followed and improved upon using feedback from neuroimaging data obtained concurrently. The integrated action of widespread, distributed networks within the brain is critical for cognitive functioning. The chapter focuses on the more extensive neural networks that connect remote brain regions referred to as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Some core ICNs include the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), attentional network, visual network, sensorimotor network, and frontoparietal control network (FPCN).