chapter  17
Pituitary dysfunction after traumatic brain injury
ByTiffany Greco
Pages 18

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability. Survivors of TBI often have complaints regarding neurobehavior and quality of life (QoL). The most often affected hormones are growth hormone (GH) and the gonadotropins, and they appear to be due to the unique anatomical vulnerability of the anterior pituitary to damage following TBI. TBI-induced hypopituitarism was first reported in 1918 in a patient with a basilar skull fracture. Variability in hypopituitarism prevalence can depend on many factors, including severity of injury, timing of hormone evaluation, study design, kind of injury, study population, and diagnostic methods. Hormone deficiencies can profoundly impact ongoing brain and physical development and long-term recovery following injury. Despite TBI being a well-known cause of hypopituitarism, it is currently unknown how repetitive mTBI (RTBI) might be a risk factor for developing pituitary dysfunction. Location and anatomy of the pituitary make it particularly susceptible to injury.