One of the most important components of a neuropsychological evaluation is identifying factors that may be contributing to a patient's symptom presentation. This chapter provides a review of neurocognitive outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) as well as highlighting several of the more commonly observed factors that may complicate recovery. It then focuses on psychological contributions (both premorbid and postinjury), pain, sleep dysfunction, and substance abuse. Various forms of testing and treatments following brain injury are also described in detail. The utility of neuropsychology evaluations is discussed, including when to refer a patient for a comprehensive evaluation, a deconstruction of the neuropsychological report, suggested recommendations, the importance of providing patients and caregiver's feedback and education. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms are common sequelae of TBI across the severity spectrum. Adequate sleep is essential in promoting physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. Alcohol and substance abuse has been associated with poor medical, neurobehavioral, vocational, and life satisfaction outcomes following brain injury.