The Safety of Nanomaterials on Molecular and Cellular Scale
This chapter highlights some principles of the interactions of nanoobjects with structures of the human body, which the authors consider as relevant for the identification of possible hazards of nanomaterials. The most basic information for hazard identification and risk assessment is the cytotoxic potential of each substance or material, which has to be evaluated toxicologically. The molecular and cellular reactions, initiated by the physicochemical properties of the nanomaterials, are ideal targets for monitoring and predicting the toxic potential of nanomaterials in parallel to the process of material design and development. The authors suggest to perform a number of cell-free experiments in vitro assays in order to design materials not only with regard to their technological function, but also regarding safety during production and intended usage. They summarize assays suitable to monitor dose-response relations within time-course experiments.