Perspectives on Physical Oncology and Future Directions
This chapter focuses on current treatments are ineffective and physicians are unable to accurately predict the outcomes to particular treatments. It is time for an individualized approach to cancer treatment; each tumor is unique and should be treated as such. Physical oncology enables experts to account for multiple scales of drug delivery, from the cellular scale to the tissue scale to the effect on the whole body. This approach also allows physicians to identify potential barriers to drug delivery on any scale and create treatment plans to overcome them. The chapter develops practical mathematical tools that can be used in the clinic by physicians to predict treatment outcome for each individual patient prior to actual treatment. It anticipates that combining our physical measurements with biological assessments of immunological properties of cancer will be critical to improving the treatment efficacy of various immunotherapies, including vaccines and checkpoint blockade.