Application of Strut-and-Tie Model for seismic design of confined masonry shear walls
Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) is a design approach in which a structure or a structural member subjected to applied static loads is idealized as a truss-like system. This chapter presents an analysis and design approach for application of STM to confined masonry walls with openings. Multiple STMs may need to be developed for the same design, depending on the direction of seismic loading and the corresponding load path. The STM approach can be effectively used for seismic analysis and design of confined masonry walls with openings, provided that the designer has a sound understanding of load path for a wall structure subjected to combined gravity and lateral loading. The forces in struts and ties are determined by applying the factored external loads, support reactions, and any other boundary forces at the nodes of a STM. Most STM research studies and design applications have been related to reinforced concrete structures, however there have been a few notable efforts related to masonry structures.