Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus is seen in children and increasingly in adults. Most children develop respiratory symptoms early in life and may present with signs of pancreatic insufficiency even before the screening results are available. Most children develop respiratory symptoms early in life and may present with signs of pancreatic insufficiency even before the screening results are available. Chronic lung disease of prematurity also referred to as bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the primary respiratory complication that develops as a consequence of mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation for acute respiratory distress after premature birth. Recurrent or persistent respiratory exacerbations may be due to structural lesions such as, tracheobronchomalacia, subglottic stenosis and chronic aspiration from gastro-oesophageal reflux or swallow dysfunction. The viral infection starts in the upper respiratory tract and spreads to the lower airways in a few days resulting in inflammation of the bronchiolar epithelium, with peribronchial infiltration of white blood cells and oedema of the submucosa and adventitia.