At this point in time the structure of the mesentery has been clarified which means that it may now be approached in a rigorously systematic manner. This realization presents considerable opportunities in an array of basic and applied sciences. Perhaps the most exciting opportunity lies in the prospect of refreshing our approach to normality and disease in general. Already, the systematic evaluation of the mesentery has led to novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. This chapter will demonstrate the opportunities that lie ahead.