Neuropsychiatric symptoms have been variously termed ‘behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia’ (BPSDs), ‘non-cognitive changes’ and ‘challenging behaviours’. e importance and ubiquity of these symptoms are highlighted by Alois Alzheimer’s rst clinical description of the condition which later became known as Alzheimer disease (AD). In this rst case study, Alzheimer wrote:
The first noticeable symptoms of illness shown by this 51-year old woman was suspiciousness of her husband. Soon, a rapidly increasing memory impairment became evident; she could no longer orient herself in her own dwelling, dragged objects here and there and hid them, and at times, believing that people were out to murder her, started to scream loudly (Alzheimer, translated by Jarvik and Greenson, 1987).