Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second most common cause of age-related dementia. Alzheimer and Kraeplin (Berrios and Freeman, 1991) both entertained the notion that gradual strangulation of the brain causes cognitive and behavioural decits. ey reasoned that progressive hardening of the arteries led to arteriosclerotic dementia. Until the late 1960s, arteriosclerotic dementia was commonly described in hospital records and attributed to cerebral so- ening with loss of relatively large volume, at least 50 mL, and preferably 100 mL of brain tissue (Tomlinson et al., 1970). It was oen clinically overdiagnosed in comparison to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). e current concepts of vascular dementia (VaD), including pathology, have evolved over a long period, oen biased by AD diagnosis.