DEFINITION AND CLINICAL FEATURES Sialolithiasis is a condition where salivary calculi or stones form in the salivary glands, usually in the duct. It is much more common in the submandibular gland than the parotid, sublingual, or minor salivary glands. The presentation of sialolithiasis is often with sialoadenitis or inflammation of the salivary gland. Blockage of the drainage system causes stasis and ensuing inflammation and infection of the gland. Sialoadenitis can also occur without sialolithiasis, and is caused by poor oral hygiene and other causes of decreased salivary flow or autoimmune disease (Figure 2.1).