The psychological management of procedure-related cancer pain. Part 1
Introduction Many methods are cited in the literature for managing paediatric pain, and they are commonly grouped under the headings pharmacological and non-pharmacological or psychologicalmethods. Although pharmacological methods are quite e¡ective, their use in the clinical setting is still hindered by a number of misconceptions as well as lack of knowledge regarding their longer-term safety in the treatment of pain in children. Children’s distress and coping behaviours during acute painful medical procedures are important areas of study in paediatric psychology. Various psychological intervention techniques, such as distraction, imagery, relaxation, cognitive therapy and hypnosis, have e¡ectively promoted coping and decreased children’s acute and chronic pain in recent years. This chapter focuses on the psychological management of procedure-
related cancer pain. The ¢rst part describes and evaluates interventions such as preparation, deep breathing, distraction, play therapy, relaxation and cognitive therapy, while the second part discusses exclusively clinical hypnosis. Special emphasis is placed on cognitive therapy and hypnosis because they have achieved status as empirically validated interventions in paediatric procedure-related pain management. For all of the interventions presented here, ¢rst the fundamental principles underlying their use are discussed, then the representative research studies that have evaluated the approach are reviewed, and ¢nally each section
concludes with a description of the techniques that are widely used in actual clinical practice.