The psychological management of procedure-related cancer pain. Part 2
Introduction Hypnosis is among the oldest and best-documented psychological treatments for pain. From the controversial reports of its use in surgery prior to the development of chemo-anaesthesia,1 to the extensive experimental and clinical literature on its use during the last 30 years,2 hypnosis has been observed to provide almost total relief from the sensation of pain in some individuals. Hypnosis is one of the most empirically tested psychological interventions in the management of procedure-related pain, especially pain due to lumbar punctures and bone-marrow aspirations, and has acquired status as an empirically supported intervention.3
The purpose of this chapter is to review the use of hypnosis in children with cancer. First, hypnosis is de¢ned and current theories about it are delineated. This discussion is followed by a brief description of the current body of knowledge with regard to hypnotic responsiveness. Next there is a comprehensive review of hypnotic interventions for pain associated with paediatric procedures, and the chapter concludes with a discussion of the actual hypnotic techniques that can be used to help children with cancer to undergo painful procedures with minimal pain and distress.