MAP Grammar and instructional design
This chapter discusses how Instructional Design may form the basis of meaning-order approach to pedagogical grammar (MAP Grammar). Instructional Design (ID) has been defined as "the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation". The principle of contiguity states that a desired response must be presented concurrently with a stimulus situation. The principle of repetition states that the repetition of stimulus and response improves learning outcomes and supports learning in a reliable manner. In the Design phase, the major units of a course, their objectives, and desired outcomes are determined, as well as the time to be allotted for each unit. The role of the fourth phase, Implement, is to establish whether the management of a class is being carried out appropriately. Finally, the Evaluate phase encompasses the evaluation of the processes from the Analyze phase through to the Implement phase, and materials used.