MAP Grammar and listening
In many language classrooms and language testing settings, listening tasks focus on evaluating listening comprehension, which requires learners to reproduce details of the listening content. This has lead researchers to focus on how to enhance learners' listening comprehension, and there has been much research conducted on listening support to help learners improve listening for content. When applying a grammar approach to listening, teachers often have students listen to a text while looking at the script, with the goal to have students identify words by looking at their position in a sentence in relation to other words and phrases, so that inferences can be made. Several audio-visual materials for the parsing tasks were developed with the meaning-order approach to pedagogical grammar structure. This chapter argues that the explicit teaching of grammar can be effective for both the development of listening comprehension and language acquisition through listening.