From backdoor to bridge
In cyber security parlance, Chinese analyses indicate that Japan effectively creates a backdoor for Western countries to engage in regional intrusion, establishing network persistence in both lawfare and warfare. This chapter delves into Chinese perceptions of Japan as both an Asian and Western power and how they shape Sino-Japanese dynamics in cyberspace. Despite the lack of a common definition of lawfare in the West, much less the East, Chinese writings on Japan and cyberspace continue to emphasize the inherent Western nature of Tokyo's cyber legal framework. Much as with the term "lawfare", there remains no internationally accepted definition for "cyber warfare". Chinese best practices would also benefit Japan as it develops such government agencies as the Industrial Cyber Security Promotion Agency to protect critical infrastructure from cyber-attacks. Formulation and implementation of a legal structure that governs cyberspace has only recently entered the Japanese consciousness.