Economic impacts of the energy transition
This contribution focuses on the economic dimension of the energy transition. It starts with the methodology of measuring the different effects of the energy transition. This helps to better understand the sophisticated modeling studies that try to quantify macroeconomic impacts. Different models lead to different results; therefore, they have to be interpreted carefully and put into context. The results depend on scale (global, national, regional), time horizon, bottom-up consistency, and the underlying assumption on economic framework conditions and instruments of the energy transition. Recognizing these different applications calls for a more elaborated portfolio of models and interdisciplinary uses to evaluate the various dimensions of the energy transition.