The disaster chronotope
This chapter argues that any social system's drivers of change that impact both human and ecological systems' structures and functions merit a closer look. The chronotope is the realm of spatial and temporal indicators that reveal relations of power between social systems, groups or individuals. Climate change drivers scale far and wide both spatially and temporally, fracturing the chronotope between cause and effect, agents of change and consumers of the impacts. The double-loop learning model is well-aligned to the adaptive cycle framework in that each assumes an iterative process of dynamic system change. The chapter analyses the adaptive cycle to understand how the type of disaster has transformed governance and resilience through learning. Disaster governance and relevant research operate at different scales. The sequence of management actions in disaster governance occurs in various stages of the adaptive cycle shedding light on the dynamics between the timing of disaster events and capacity to adapt.