chapter  11
Urban development and carbon damage to inclusive wealth of a megacity: the case of Tokyo
Pages 16

For decades, most international benchmarks on urban attractiveness have ranked Tokyo as one of the world’s most global cities. The Mori Memorial Foundation (2014) ranked it as the fourth most global city after New York, London and Paris. Tokyo is a hub of economic activity in Japan. According to the OECD (2013), Tokyo is responsible for approximately 40 percent of Japan’s national GDP. Tokyo’s GDP in 2014 was the 14th largest in the ranking of national GDPs. The city hosts over 2,000 foreign affiliated companies, and the headquarters of 50 companies ranked in the Fortune Global 500 are within a 5-kilometer radius of the city center (Pham 2015).