Pre-operative and post-operative care
Historically, during surgical procedures the patient was put to lie on a wooden table with an anaesthetist and a room of people holding them down. There was no infection control and most of the patients died from sepsis and infections compared to those who survived. Today, surgical procedures are more complex, sometimes lasting for hours. There has been the emergence of keyhole surgery. It is interesting to note that paediatric surgery was not considered a specialised area until the early twentieth century, although other specialist areas were recognised.