Institutionalizing the pro-democracy movements: the case of Zambia’s Movement for Multiparty Democracy
In the last two decades, East Africa has taken some notable steps towards shaping democracy: multiparty elections were introduced in the 1990s in Kenya and Tanzania, and 2005 in Uganda. This chapter aims to explain why citizens in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya differ so much in their expressed support for the political opposition on the one hand, and in the ruling political institutions on the other. Democratic civic culture evaluation of output, civic values and knowledge can explain the emergence of democratic institutions. The argument that government performance or output is the most important factor creating legitimacy for a state has been developed further by Rothstein. The Democratic constitutional value index variable is again split into slope dummy variables in order to compare the effect between the respective countries, with Kenya being the residual. In Kenya, appreciating democratic constitutional values increased the likelihood for distrusting ruling institutions.